I - Principerklæring,
Wye River Memorandum,
I - Principerklæring
Det første dokument i serien af aftaler mellem
Israel og PLO, kendt som "Oslo-aftalerne",
er en "principserklæring" (Declaration
Of Principles), underskrevet af Israels premierminister,
Yitzhak Rabin, og den palæstinensiske leder, Yassir
Arafat, i Washington den 13. september 1993.
Herunder følger erklæringens fulde tekst
Oslo I - Declaration
of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements
September 13, 1993
The Government of the State of Israel
and the P.L.O. team (in the Jordanian-Palestinian delegation
to the Middle East Peace Conference) (the "Palestinian
Delegation"), representing the Palestinian people,
agree that it is time to put an end to decades of confrontation
and conflict, recognize their mutual legitimate and
political rights, and strive to live in peaceful coexistence
and mutual dignity and security and achieve a just,
lasting and comprehensive peace settlement and historic
reconciliation through the agreed political process.
Accordingly, the two sides agree to the following principles:
Aim of the Negotiations
The aim of the Israeli-Palestinian negotiations within
the current Middle East peace process is, among other
things, to establish a Palestinian Interim Self-Government
Authority, the elected Council (the "Council"),
for the Palestinian people in the West Bank and the
Gaza Strip, for a transitional period not exceeding
five years, leading to a permanent settlement based
on Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338.
It is understood that the interim arrangements are
an integral part of the whole peace process and that
the negotiations on the permanent status will lead to
the implementation of Security Council Resolutions 242
Framework for the Interim Period
The agreed framework for the interim period is set
forth in this Declaration of Principles.
- In order that the Palestinian people in the West
Bank and Gaza Strip may govern themselves according
to democratic principles, direct, free and general
political elections will be held for the Council under
agreed supervision and international observation,
while the Palestinian police will ensure public order.
- An agreement will be concluded on the exact mode
and conditions of the elections in accordance with
the protocol attached as Annex I, with the goal of
holding the elections not later than nine months after
the entry into force of this Declaration of Principles.
- These elections will constitute a significant interim
preparatory step toward the realization of the legitimate
rights of the Palestinian people and their just requirements.
Jurisdiction of the Council will cover West Bank and
Gaza Strip territory, except for issues that will be
negotiated in the permanent status negotiations. The
two sides view the West Bank and the Gaza Strip as a
single territorial unit, whose integrity will be preserved
during the interim period.
Transitional Period and Permanent Status Negotiations
- The five-year transitional period will begin upon
the withdrawal from the Gaza Strip and Jericho area.
- Permanent status negotiations will commence as
soon as possible, but not later than the beginning
of the third year of the interim period, between the
Government of Israel and the Palestinian people representatives.
- It is understood that these negotiations shall
cover remaining issues, including: Jerusalem, refugees,
settlements, security arrangements, borders, relations
and cooperation with other neighbors, and other issues
of common interest.
- The two parties agree that the outcome of the permanent
status negotiations should not be prejudiced or preempted
by agreements reached for the interim period.
Preparatory Transfer of Powers and Responsibilities
- Upon the entry into force of this Declaration of
Principles and the withdrawal from the Gaza Strip
and the Jericho area, a transfer of authority from
the Israeli military government and its Civil Administration
to the authorised Palestinians for this task, as detailed
herein, will commence. This transfer of authority
will be of a preparatory nature until the inauguration
of the Council.
- Immediately after the entry into force of this Declaration
of Principles and the withdrawal from the Gaza Strip
and Jericho area, with the view to promoting economic
development in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, authority
will be transferred to the Palestinians on the following
spheres: education and culture, health, social welfare,
direct taxation, and tourism. The Palestinian side
will commence in building the Palestinian police force,
as agreed upon. Pending the inauguration of the Council,
the two parties may negotiate the transfer of additional
powers and responsibilities, as agreed upon.
- The Israeli and Palestinian delegations will negotiate
an agreement on the interim period (the "Interim
- The Interim Agreement shall specify, among other
things, the structure of the Council, the number of
its members, and the transfer of powers and responsibilities
from the Israeli military government and its Civil
Administration to the Council. The Interim Agreement
shall also specify the Council's executive authority,
legislative authority in accordance with Article IX
below, and the independent Palestinian judicial organs.
- The Interim Agreement shall include arrangements,
to be implemented upon the inauguration of the Council,
for the assumption by the Council of all of the powers
and responsibilities transferred previously in accordance
with Article VI above.
- In order to enable the Council to promote economic
growth, upon its inauguration, the Council will establish,
among other things, a Palestinian Electricity Authority,
a Gaza Sea Port Authority, a Palestinian Development
Bank, a Palestinian Export Promotion Board, a Palestinian
Environmental Authority, a Palestinian Land Authority
and a Palestinian Water Administration Authority,
and any other Authorities agreed upon, in accordance
with the Interim Agreement that will specify their
powers and responsibilities.
- After the inauguration of the Council, the Civil
Administration will be dissolved, and the Israeli
military government will be withdrawn.
Public Order and Security
In order to guarantee public order and internal security
for the Palestinians of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip,
the Council will establish a strong police force, while
Israel will continue to carry the responsibility for
defending against external threats, as well as the responsibility
for overall security of Israelis for the purpose of
safeguarding their internal security and public order.
Laws and Military Orders
- The Council will be empowered to legislate, in accordance
with the Interim Agreement, within all authorities
transferred to it.
- Both parties will review jointly laws and military
orders presently in force in remaining spheres.
Joint Israeli-Palestinian Liaison Committee
In order to provide for a smooth implementation of
this Declaration of Principles and any subsequent agreements
pertaining to the interim period, upon the entry into
force of this Declaration of Principles, a Joint Israeli-Palestinian
Liaison Committee will be established in order to deal
with issues requiring coordination, other issues of
common interest, and disputes.
Israeli-Palestinian Cooperation in Economic Fields
Recognizing the mutual benefit of cooperation in promoting
the development of the West Bank, the Gaza Strip and
Israel, upon the entry into force of this Declaration
of Principles, an Israeli-Palestinian Economic Cooperation
Committee will be established in order to develop and
implement in a cooperative manner the programs identified
in the protocols attached as Annex III and Annex IV.
Liason and Cooperation with Jordan and Egypt
The two parties will invite the Governments of Jordan
and Egypt to participate in establishing further liaison
and cooperation arrangements between the Government
of Israel and the Palestinian representatives, on the
one hand, and the Governments of Jordan and Egypt, on
the other hand, to promote cooperation between them.
These arrangements will include the constitution of
a Continuing Committee that will decide by agreement
on the modalities of admission of persons displaced
from the West Bank and Gaza Strip in 1967, together
with necessary measures to prevent disruption and disorder.
Other matters of common concern will be dealt with by
Redeployment of Israeli Forces
- After the entry into force of this Declaration of
Principles, and not later than the eve of elections
for the Council, a redeployment of Israeli military
forces in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip will take
place, in addition to withdrawal of Israeli forces
carried out in accordance with Article XIV.
- In redeploying its military forces, Israel will
be guided by the principle that its military forces
should be redeployed outside populated areas.
- Further redeployments to specified locations will
be gradually implemented commensurate with the assumption
of responsibility for public order and internal security
by the Palestinian police force pursuant to Article
Israeli Withdrawal from the Gaza Strip and Jericho Area
Israel will withdraw from the Gaza Strip and Jericho
area, as detailed in the protocol attached as Annex
Resolution of Disputes
- Disputes arising out of the application or interpretation
of this Declaration of Principles. or any subsequent
agreements pertaining to the interim period, shall
be resolved by negotiations through the Joint Liaison
Committee to be established pursuant to Article X
- Disputes which cannot be settled by negotiations
may be resolved by a mechanism of conciliation to
be agreed upon by the parties.
- The parties may agree to submit to arbitration disputes
relating to the interim period, which cannot be settled
through conciliation. To this end, upon the agreement
of both parties, the parties will establish an Arbitration
Israeli-Palestinian Cooperation Concerning Regional
Both parties view the multilateral working groups as
an appropriate instrument for promoting a "Marshall
Plan", the regional programs and other programs,
including special programs for the West Bank and Gaza
Strip, as indicated in the protocol attached as Annex
- This Declaration of Principles will enter into force
one month after its signing.
- All protocols annexed to this Declaration of Principles
and Agreed Minutes pertaining thereto shall be regarded
as an integral part hereof.
Done at Washington, D.C., this thirteenth day of September,
For the Government of Israel: For
The United States of America: The
Protocol on the Mode and Conditions of Elections
- Palestinians of Jerusalem who live there will have
the right to participate in the election process,
according to an agreement between the two sides.
- In addition, the election agreement should cover,
among other things, the following issues:
a. the system of elections;
b. the mode of the agreed supervision and
international observation and their personal composition;
c. rules and regulations regarding election
campaign, including agreed arrangements for the organizing
of mass media, and the possibility of licensing a
broadcasting and TV station.
- The future status of displaced Palestinians who
were registered on 4th June 1967 will not be prejudiced
because they are unable to participate in the election
process due to practical reasons.
Protocol on Withdrawal of Israeli Forces from the Gaza
Strip and Jericho Area
- The two sides will conclude and sign within two
months from the date of entry into force of this Declaration
of Principles, an agreement on the withdrawal of Israeli
military forces from the Gaza Strip and Jericho area.
This agreement will include comprehensive arrangements
to apply in the Gaza Strip and the Jericho area subsequent
to the Israeli withdrawal.
- Israel will implement an accelerated and scheduled
withdrawal of Israeli military forces from the Gaza
Strip and Jericho area, beginning immediately with
the signing of the agreement on the Gaza Strip and
Jericho area and to be completed within a period not
exceeding four months after the signing of this agreement.
- The above agreement will include, among other things:
a. Arrangements for a smooth and peaceful
transfer of authority from the Israeli military government
and its Civil Administration to the Palestinian representatives.
b. Structure, powers and responsibilities
of the Palestinian authority in these areas, except:
external security, settlements, Israelis, foreign
relations, and other mutually agreed matters.
c. Arrangements for the assumption of internal
security and public order by the Palestinian police
force consisting of police officers recruited locally
and from abroad holding Jordanian passports and Palestinian
documents issued by Egypt). Those who will participate
in the Palestinian police force coming from abroad
should be trained as police and police officers.
d. A temporary international or foreign
presence, as agreed upon.
e. Establishment of a joint Palestinian-Israeli
Coordination and Cooperation Committee for mutual
f. An economic development and stabilization
program, including the establishment of an Emergency
Fund, to encourage foreign investment, and financial
and economic support. Both sides will coordinate and
cooperate jointly and unilaterally with regional and
international parties to support these aims.
g. Arrangements for a safe passage for
persons and transportation between the Gaza Strip
and Jericho area.
- The above agreement will include arrangements for
coordination between both parties regarding passages:
a. Gaza - Egypt; and
b. Jericho - Jordan.
- The offices responsible for carrying out the powers
and responsibilities of the Palestinian authority
under this Annex II and Article VI of the Declaration
of Principles will be located in the Gaza Strip and
in the Jericho area pending the inauguration of the
- Other than these agreed arrangements, the status
of the Gaza Strip and Jericho area will continue to
be an integral part of the West Bank and Gaza Strip,
and will not be changed in the interim period.
Protocol on Israeli-Palestinian Cooperation in Economic
and Development Programs
The two sides agree to establish an Israeli-Palestinian
continuing Committee for Economic Cooperation, focusing,
among other things, on the following:
- Cooperation in the field of water, including a Water
Development Program prepared by experts from both
sides, which will also specify the mode of cooperation
in the management of water resources in the West Bank
and Gaza Strip, and will include proposals for studies
and plans on water rights of each party, as well as
on the equitable utilization of joint water resources
for implementation in and beyond the interim period.
- Cooperation in the field of electricity, including
an Electricity Development Program, which will also
specify the mode of cooperation for the production,
maintenance, purchase and sale of electricity resources.
- Cooperation in the field of energy, including an
Energy Development Program, which will provide for
the exploitation of oil and gas for industrial purposes,
particularly in the Gaza Strip and in the Negev, and
will encourage further joint exploitation of other
energy resources. This Program may also provide for
the construction of a Petrochemical industrial complex
in the Gaza Strip and the construction of oil and
- Cooperation in the field of finance, including a
Financial Development and Action Program for the encouragement
of international investment in the West Bank and the
Gaza Strip, and in Israel, as well as the establishment
of a Palestinian Development Bank.
- Cooperation in the field of transport and communications,
including a Program, which will define guidelines
for the establishment of a Gaza Sea Port Area, and
will provide for the establishing of transport and
communications lines to and from the West Bank and
the Gaza Strip to Israel and to other countries. In
addition, this Program will provide for carrying out
the necessary construction of roads, railways, communications
- Cooperation in the field of trade, including studies,
and Trade Promotion Programs, which will encourage
local, regional and inter-regional trade, as well
as a feasibility study of creating free trade zones
in the Gaza Strip and in Israel, mutual access to
these zones, and cooperation in other areas related
to trade and commerce.
- Cooperation in the field of industry, including
Industrial Development Programs, which will provide
for the establishment of joint Israeli- Palestinian
Industrial Research and Development Centers, will
promote Palestinian-Israeli joint ventures, and provide
guidelines for cooperation in the textile, food, pharmaceutical,
electronics, diamonds, computer and science-based
- A program for cooperation in, and regulation of,
labor relations and cooperation in social welfare
- A Human Resources Development and Cooperation Plan,
providing for joint Israeli-Palestinian workshops
and seminars, and for the establishment of joint vocational
training centers, research institutes and data banks.
- An Environmental Protection Plan, providing for
joint and/or coordinated measures in this sphere.
- A program for developing coordination and cooperation
in the field of communication and media.
- Any other programs of mutual interest.
Protocol on Israeli-Palestinian Cooperation Concerning
Regional Development Programs
- The two sides will cooperate in the context of the
multilateral peace efforts in promoting a Development
Program for the region, including the West Bank and
the Gaza Strip, to be initiated by the G-7. The parties
will request the G-7 to seek the participation in
this program of other interested states, such as members
of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development,
regional Arab states and institutions, as well as
members of the private sector.
- The Development Program will consist of two elements:
a. an Economic Development Program for
the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.
b. a Regional Economic Development Program:
A. The Economic
Development Program for the West
Bank and the Gaza strip will
consist of the following
Social Rehabilitation Program, including a
and Construction Program.
Small and Medium Business Development Plan.
Infrastructure Development Program (water, electricity,
transportation and communications, etc.)
Human Resources Plan.
B. The Regional
Economic Development Program may consist
of the following elements:
establishment of a Middle East Development Fund,
as a first step, and a Middle East Development Bank,
as a second step.
development of a joint Israeli-Palestinian- Jordanian
Plan for coordinated exploitation of the Dead
Mediterranean Sea (Gaza) - Dead Sea Canal.
Desalinization and other water development
regional plan for agricultural development,
a coordinated regional effort for the
of electricity grids.
cooperation for the transfer, distribution and
industrial exploitation of gas, oil and other energy
Regional Tourism, Transportation and Telecommunications
cooperation in other spheres.
- The two sides will encourage the multilateral working
groups, and will coordinate towards their success.
The two parties will encourage intersessional activities,
as well as pre-feasibility and feasibility studies,
within the various multilateral working groups.
to the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government
A. General Understandings and Agreemments
Any powers and responsibilities transferred to the
Palestinians pursuant to the Declaration of Principles
prior to the inauguration of the Council will be subject
to the same principles pertaining to Article IV, as
set out in these Agreed Minutes below.
B. Specific Understandings and Agreements
It is understood that:
- Jurisdiction of the Council will cover West Bank
and Gaza Strip territory, except for issues that will
be negotiated in the permanent status negotiations:
Jerusalem, settlements, military locations, and Israelis.
- The Council's jurisdiction will apply with regard
to the agreed powers, responsibilities, spheres and
authorities transferred to it.
Article VI (2)
It is agreed that the transfer of authority will be
- The Palestinian side will inform the Israeli side
of the names of the authorised Palestinians who will
assume the powers, authorities and responsibilities
that will be transferred to the Palestinians according
to the Declaration of Principles in the following
fields: education and culture, health, social welfare,
direct taxation, tourism, and any other authorities
- It is understood that the rights and obligations
of these offices will not be affected.
- Each of the spheres described above will continue
to enjoy existing budgetary allocations in accordance
with arrangements to be mutually agreed upon. These
arrangements also will provide for the necessary adjustments
required in order to take into account the taxes collected
by the direct taxation office.
- Upon the execution of the Declaration of Principles,
the Israeli and Palestinian delegations will immediately
commence negotiations on a detailed plan for the transfer
of authority on the above offices in accordance with
the above understandings.
Article VII (2)
The Interim Agreement will also include arrangements
for coordination and cooperation.
Article VII (5)
The withdrawal of the military government will not
prevent Israel from exercising the powers and responsibilities
not transferred to the Council.
It is understood that the Interim Agreement will include
arrangements for cooperation and coordination between
the two parties in this regard. It is also agreed that
the transfer of powers and responsibilities to the Palestinian
police will be accomplished in a phased manner, as agreed
in the Interim Agreement.
It is agreed that, upon the entry into force of the
Declaration of Principles, the Israeli and Palestinian
delegations will exchange the names of the individuals
designated by them as members of the Joint Israeli-Palestinian
It is further agreed that each side will have an equal
number of members in the Joint Committee. The Joint
Committee will reach decisions by agreement. The Joint
Committee may add other technicians and experts, as
necessary. The Joint Committee will decide on the frequency
and place or places of its meetings.
It is understood that, subsequent to the Israeli withdrawal,
Israel will continue to be responsible for external
security, and for internal security and public order
of settlements and Israelis. Israeli military forces
and civilians may continue to use roads freely within
the Gaza Strip and the Jericho area.
Done at Washington, D.C., this thirteenth day of September,
For the Government of Israel: For
The United States of America: The